Preamble by the Right Honourable Dr Ntsu Mokhehle Minister of Defence
Foreword by the Principal Secretary Mr. A. N. Ncholu


Control Principles
Functions of the Ministry of Defence
Organisation of the Ministry


Collaboration and co-operative security in Southern Africa - An Overview
Peace making and Peace keeping
Inter State Defence and Security Committee


Foreword by Major-General A. M. Mosakeng Commander, Lesotho Defence Force
Lesotho Defence Force Mission Statement
The role of the Lesotho Defence Force
Organisation and Re-structuring


Mission Statement - National Security Service
Role of the National Security Service




It is my great honour to submit before the nation this second edition of the Ministry of Defence annual report, which reviews the activities of the Ministry.

The year has been punctuated with challenges and opportunities. I wish to point out that without the dedication and commitment of all involved in the Ministry not much could have been achieved. The restructuring of the Lesotho Defence Force and National Security Service is a milestone, and I want to put on record that it has been a successful endeavour. Finally in congratulating everyone who has been involved one-way or the other, I further take this opportunity to express appreciation for the valuable contribution made by the management and staff of the Ministry in ensuring that the Ministry was able to perform its mandate as a contribution to the well being of the nation and the country.



The Adversarial decades of the cold war have collapsed, and given rise to new possibilities i.e. to meet successfully threats to common security. Authoritarian regimes have given way to more democratic forces and responsive governments. The wave of democratisation produced new mandates for defence forces and the restructuring of Lesotho Defence Force and National Security Services was no accident. An additional development has been the involvement of our defence force in peacekeeping exercises regionally. This emerges as a central instrument for the prevention and resolution of conflicts and for the preservation of peace. This wider mission of our defence forces will demand the concerted attention and effort of our security establishments.

The relationship between the armed forces and the elected government is of critical importance in an emerging democracy. The establishment of the Ministry of Defence was in support of the democratic process in Lesotho. The report seeks to inform the nation as to how government policies were implemented as it relates to fulfilling statutory obligations by the Lesotho Defence Force and the National Security Service. In discharging this important mandate transparency and accountability were the guiding principles.





The Ministry of Defence was established in August, 1994. It was set up largely to reflect the notion of civilian control of the military and security service. Civilian control is an essential aspect of democratic government. This is a condition which ensures that the military operates in accordance with the constitution and wishes of parliament. The control measures are not aimed at usurping or interfering in operational matters and the military chain of command. Since its establishment the Ministry of Defence has been heavily involved in professional development of both the Lesotho Defence Force and the National Security Service. In order to establish civilian control the civil-military relationship is governed by four principles: separation of military and civilian powers, legality, accountability and transparency.



The essence of the division is that armed forces should refrain from involvement in politics other than through constitutionally approved channels whilst civilians refrain from interfering with the military disciplinary code. There is a clear structural distinction between the respective powers of the government and the armed services. The challenge is to ensure that the services participate in the development of defence policy without undermining the authority of civilian decision-makers. The solution is civilian respect for military professionalism and military acceptance for civilian supremacy. Professionalism implies political neutrality and full commitment to the rules of the political process, civilian supremacy implies civilian/political control.


The powers and functions of the Lesotho Defence Force and National Security Service are determined by law, i.e. the constitution the Defence Act and the National Security Service Act. The security forces are obliged to operate strictly within these parameters. The armed forces are expected to uphold the values of the constitution when fulfilling their responsibilities. In times of war they are bound by international law on armed conflict.


It is inherent in a democracy that all state institutions are accountable to the elected and duly appointed civilian authority. This is particularly important in the case of the armed services because of their capacity for violence. The public and the Parliament need an assurance that the services are performing their duties according to democratically agreed policy decisions. Such an assurance is provided through the oversight function of the parliamentary defence committee and through the political authority exercised by the Ministry of Defence. The Minister and the government are themselves answerable to Parliament and the public for the formulation and execution of defence policy. The executive and the military are accountable for the disbursement of public funds according to prescribes and as approved by Parliament.


Accountability at every level requires a sufficient degree of transparency and adequate provision of information on security and defence. Whatever mechanisms of control and over sight may be rendered ineffectual if critical information is absent. The problem is often how to balance the public's right to know and the need for confidentiality in the interests of National Security. There is a difference between an emphasis on protection of information and an emphasis on law. In actual practice parliament determines where the emphasis should be through appropriate legislation.


The Ministry of Defence has been established to serve two functions in government. It serves the administrative and executive functions as relate to armed services.


It is the administrative headquarters of the Lesotho Defence Force and the National Security Service. It provides the government with the support to manage the defence forces. The Ministry ensures that the defence forces have the necessary resources at their disposal to meet the commitments placed on them by Government. The Ministry of Defence has been heavily involved in the restructuring of both the Lesotho Defence Force and National Security Service. International and Regional Cooperation has been at the forefront. Our defence forces have benefited a great deal from this regional cooperation through training, exchange visits, support during disasters and even through information sharing on various defence issues.

The Executive function is carried out through policy-making activity within government. The Ministry of Defence provides advice to government on all aspects of defence issues. The crux of the executive function is policy execution, therefore the Ministry of Defence oversees the execution function. The Ministry provides the support function in making the defence forces accountable to parliament and transparent. The Principal Secretary is the Chief Accounting Officer, he administers the defence budget and as such is responsible to the Minister and Parliament for finances of the Ministry.


The Ministry of Defence has been established with Joint Civilian, Military and Security Service Staff. It is headed by a civil Servant Principal Secretary, supported by a joint subordinate staff. The civilian, Military and security service personnel within the Ministry provide the Principal Secretary with balanced advice. Defence policies that are developed have administrative, operational as well as political content. The civil service has the capability for administrative and political category whilst the Lesotho Defence Force and National Security Service provide operational aspects. This combination is aimed at providing government with a well-balanced advice.

Since the establishment of the Ministry of Defence both the Lesotho Defence Force and National Security Service underwent restructuring. Within the new structure the commander of the Lesotho Defence Force and his supportive staff will be located in the Ministry of Defence. This is reflected at figure one (1). It is envisaged that will provide for better command and control. The National Security Service also remains part of the Ministry of Defence. This organisation is structured along functional lines where civilian, military and security service personnel work together. The Ministry of Defence has the following departments/divisions.


Principal Secretary for Defence as the Head of Ministry of Defence is the Chief Accounting Officer. He is the Principal adviser to Government on defence matters: The Principal Secretary is responsible for assisting in the formulation of defence policy, its execution and presentation. He provides advice on political and parliamentary aspects of defence policy. He chairs the two steering committees involved in restructuring of both the Lesotho Defence Force and National Security Service. The Principal Secretary has been heavily involved in forgiving links within the region and abroad with other defence organisations.


The Deputy Principal Secretary is mainly responsible for the day to day administrative function of the Ministry including oversight of the defence budget, management of the support Services, procurement and logistical matters. The DPS stands in for the Principal Secretary in his absence. He chairs the defence finance and planning committee which oversees budget administration.


The Functions of this office are related to the formulation of policies and the oversight of all procurement and logistics matters of the Lesotho Defence Force and National Security Service. In compliance of financial practices a number of initiatives are in place to ensure proper use of public funds in procurement. The Deputy Principal Secretary is the chairman of the committee which oversees that financial procedure are adhered to, and proper use of public funds. The office was badly affected/impaired by staff movements in the section. One official retired from the service while the other passed.


This office is responsible for drafting and presentation of defence policy, providing advise on political and parliamentary aspects of policy and operations. Public relations, academic liaison and protocol also falls within the responsibilities of this office, the former providing necessary transparency and understanding of defence related business. Since the international disarmament initiative began, this office has been directly involved in land mining and chemical weapon prohibition initiative in different fora. At the time of writing Lesotho is promulgating legislation in compliance with the chemical weapons convention.

Public relations is also an important role the office has to perform. Press release are regularly issued by this office on important defence related matters. The office is also responsible for the publication of the Defence News. Closer working relations between the National University of Lesotho has been established e. g in exchange of information, National University of Lesotho is one of the Defence News recipient, IEMS has been involved in training workshop for both the Lesotho Defence Force and National Security Service in consultation with the training directorate. Also prominent in the report was a number of seminars for the Lesotho Defence Force and National Security Service. The seminars were funded by the UNDP and Lesotho Government. Protocol function is performed by this office.


This office is responsible for providing the Chief Accounting Officer with advice and information on the allocation, management, performance and planning of the defence budget. Mechanisms have been put in place that provide the Chief Accounting Officer with information in order to enable him to make informed strategic decisions.


The Office is charged with providing coordination of operation that involve more than one arm of the disciplined forces. It is also responsible for drafting and disseminating standard procedures and intelligence information to government. The Director is the member of all the defence and security related committees. In the year under review there have been a lot of improvements in planning and directing the conduct of the Joint Operation and Intelligence and as well as in the dissemination of information and intelligence to government.

In the milestone for ensuring proper operating procedures and allowing proper command and control of defence resources in crisis, a successful joint disaster related course was held in January, 1997, at Makoanyane Military Barracks. The course was sponsored by the British Government. Of the resource persons three were from the University of Cranfield, Disaster Management Centre in the United Kingdom. Thirty (30) participants, fifteen (15) from the Lesotho Defence Force and fifteen (15) from the Lesotho Police Service. The course was under the auspices of the Disaster Management Authority (DMA). The objective of the course was to give participants an overview of principles and practices of disaster management so as to prepare them to meet their commitments in the national and district plans. the course clearly identified the roles of the Lesotho Defence Force, Police Service and Ministry of Defence therein.

See Figure 2


1. Establishment of internal procedures for effective and preparedness response x x
2. Airborne search and rescue x
3. Landborne search and rescue x
4. Transportation of food, fuel and water x
5. Distribution of food, fuel and water x
6. Security of food, fuel and water x
7. Provision of medical assistance (incl) supplies and paramedics) x
8. Assistance in evacuation x
9. Transportation of equipment x
10. Provision of emergency shelter x
11. Provision of construction and repair facilities x
12. Provision of communication & command and control facilities x
13. Provision of other essential services x
14. Enforcement of restrictions (i.e. water) x
15. Planning for operational training and exercises x x
16. Participation in regular joint exercises (incl SANDF) x x
17. Training of trainers x
18. Procurement and provision of disaster related equipment for LDF  x
19. Maintenance of disaster equipment x

Figure 2

The end of May, 1997 Lesotho experienced a heavy snowfall which threatened a disaster on the highlands and mountainous areas of Lesotho. Ministry of Defence, Disaster Management Authority, Lesotho Defence Force and the Air Wing set for reconnaissance on the 28th May, 1997 where eight people trapped in snow in vehicles at different places along the mountain road ('Matšoana range) were rescued. The above experience brought about the establishment of National Operation Centre and Joint Operation Centre and Ministry of Defence plays the coordination function. Ministry of Defence is also represented in the following working groups of the Disaster Management Authority:

(a) The executive
(b) Training
(c) Food and Logistics (sec 12 (1) of the Disaster Management Act 1997).

The Principal Secretary for Defence is the member of the Board of Directors, in the Disaster

Management set up in July, 1997 estimates were made towards the building of Joint Operations Centre at Lesotho Defence Force Airwing. As part of the implementation process procurement of base radios has been made. More radios are needed to complete the whole set-up communication during disaster.


The office has been very instrumental in developing more professionalism improved capabilities in both the Lesotho Defence Force and National Security Service. This office has been instrumental facilitating training opportunities for the Lesotho Defence Force and National Security Service regionally and internationally to support the restructuring. Other responsibilities include handling of pay pensions, conditions of service and discipline matters.


This office is responsible for providing guidance and advise in all personnel related matters pertaining to civilian staff.


There has been a number of visits undertaken by officials of Ministry of Defence. The Principal Secretary joined the Lesotho Delegation to Canada for the signing of the Ottawa Treaty (world initiative on total ban for land mines). Chief Public Relation Officer attended a workshop in the Hague on chemical weapons. Deputy Principal Secretary represented the Principal Secretary in Mauritius on meeting of Principal Secretaries of Defence of SADC countries. Principal Secretary and then Defence Secretary attended a number of meetings of Inter State Defence and Security Committee. Ministry of Defence was honoured to host a delegation of students/participants from the Zimbabwe Staff College for a week. Deputy Principal Secretary, Chief Public Relation Officer and official from Lesotho Defence Force went on a fact-finding mission to RSA and Zimbabwe to share their experiences on Chemical Weapon Legislation.



After the liberation of South Africa following on to the democratic elections of 1994, the debate regarding regional security co-operation in Southern Africa intensified. In pursuing this a number of initiatives took place most of which have been under the umbrella of the Southern African Development Community (SADC). The end of the cold war also has a bearing on the transformation in the region. The rules of the old order lost their legitimacy, and transformation tends to be unstable. Increased violence and criminality are characteristic of structural transformation and have become world-wide phenomena.

The former Secretary General of the United Nations once observed that "Regional and Continental Association of states are evolving ways and means to deepen cooperation and ease some of the contentious characteristics of sovereign and nationalistic rivalries. National boundaries are blurred by advanced communications and global commerce, and the decision of states to yield some sovereign prerogatives to larger, common political associations". Sub-Saharan Africa especially the SADC region was not left out. The establishment of a follow up organisation to the Front-Line State (FLS) and the development of the Inter-State Defence and Security Committee (ISDC) are development within the wider framework of global security.

There are no highly militarised alliances, blocks or systems that divide Africa. However, it is crucial for a region such as Southern Africa to be aware that even though global transition implies a reduced threat of Conventional and Nuclear war, that does not necessarily imply a decreased risk of regional instability. Africa's millions of refugees flee wars, drought and disease, taking nearly half of the world's allotted emergency food aid. Africa is experiencing a new wave of violence at the time when the continent is being marginalised in a post-cold war era and at a time when the continent is more vulnerable. The instability is increased by the escalating proliferation of cheap weapons, drug-trafficking and the lack of control thereof; this is more of a threat to the Southern African region than the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.

It is clear that Industrialised countries want Africa to accept increased responsibility for co-operation, preventive diplomacy and peace support operation in the region. As a result of the Peace Keeping fatigue of the Western World, there is often no evidence of any remaining political will amongst industrialised countries to provide stability when the fragile control of government collapses, as is often the case in the region, except words of condemnation. What are the prospects of increased regional security under the auspices of the OAU or SADC? It may not be at a highly mature level but the SADC has proven that it is possible to do so given the right structures of government and the social fabric of the region. Intervention in Lesotho in 1994 during the constitutional crises, and initiatives in Angola are but few examples. It is no doubt progress towards a democratic value system shared amongst the various states in the region also rapid and sustainable economic growth are the building blocks for greater national and regional security in Southern Africa. The successful examples of preventive diplomacy and peace making in restoring democracy in Lesotho and the break of the impasse stalling the implementation of the Lusaka Agreement in Angola have enthused believers and skeptics alike.


History tells us that conflict is an integral part of the international system. Nations interact and they clash over a number of issues, especially those involving vital National interests. In Africa the 1990's have witnessed a number of disputes and being the most turbulent period in the history of African political development. The escalation of civil strife and armed conflict in Africa is not only disturbing to Africans and their external partners, but is also a serious impediment to development of the continent as a whole. Conflicts and domestic tension have had devastating effects on the lives of people in Africa and their efforts toward meaningful socioeconomic transformation, integration and development.

Many countries for different motives, are now seeking new missions for their own armed forces so that these can effectively contribute to their restructuring and right-sizing. The need to restructure and reduce military budget is a global trend originating from different motives in different regions of the world. Under developed nations in different regions found themselves under pressure to ensure that democratic processes prevailed over the unbridled power of National Military Forces.

This trend is in tune with universal pressure to secure democracy, the protection of the individual, and the reassignment of scarce resources to serve direct developmental purposes.

In conflicts on the African continent, the OAU should generally be the primary actor in seeking resolution of conflicts, with regional governments acting in concert. It is not argued that the UN and Major International countries do not have important roles to play in conflict resolution. UN responsibility to peace-keeping on the continent will be undertaken more successfully with an improved contribution from African countries themselves both at the continental level, and at the level of sub-regional organisations to coordinate and facilitate as necessary.

The declaration of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government on the establishment of the mechanism has committed the OAU to close cooperation with the UN in respect of peace-making and peace-keeping.

In 1990, the OAU leaders officially pledged their commitment towards the peaceful and speedy resolution of conflicts. For the first time, the 1991 OAU summit of African Heads of State and Governments acknowledged in its final communiqué for the first time that "there is a link between security, stability, development and cooperation in Africa" and the problems of security, stability in many African countries had impaired the capacity of the OAU to achieve cooperation.

At the first OAU Chiefs of Staff meeting held in June 1996 there was a general agreement that Africa could further develop its capacity for conducting peace operations through improved sub-regional co-ordination and the standardisation of training, operating procedures, equipment, logistics etc.

The second meeting of the Chiefs of staff of the Central Organ of the OAU held in Harare 24-25 October 1997 made recommendations on developing African capabilities for peacekeeping for consideration and adoption by the political organs of the OAU.

In pursuing the decision to establish a wing for conflict mediation and prevention, a meeting of SADC Foreign Ministers in Harare on March 3, 1995 recommended the establishment of an Association of Southern African States (ASAS) as the political arm of SADC under chapter 7, article 21 (3) (g) of the SADC Treaty. ASAS would be guided by the principles of the July 1994 Windhoek document, that included the following:


This is a forum where ministers of Southern African States, responsible for Defence, Home Affairs, Public Security and State Security, discuss a wide range of issues relating to their individual and collective defence and security. ISDSC was established in 1983 under the aegis of Frontline States. It is an informal structure operating according to practices agreed upon by member states and developed overtime.







Sub regional organisations such as the SADC have the potential to act as building block

in a system of preventive action and early warning. They could, in particular, promote confidence-building measures such as security agreements, or provide assurances at sub regional level. Increased military cooperation in the region could decrease the reliance on external assistance and provide additional stability in a volatile area. In this regard a number of measures are already in place or planned to increase transparency, inter-operability and professional standards.

Although regional economic integration and multilateral cooperation may be a slow process, bilateral security arrangements between South Africa and its neighbours on a variety of issues of mutual interest are flourishing. These include measures to counter weapon and drug smuggling, cattle rustling and vehicle theft. Disaster relief, security training and assistance, and policing of maritime exclusion zones. The recent agreement between South Africa and Mozambique to counter the trade in small arms has led to a joint operation in Mozambique between the South African police service and Mozambican authorities during which the task force destroyed more than a thousand weapons as part of operation Rachel.

On 12 June 1995 South Africa and Namibia signed a comprehensive agreement on cross border policing aimed at combating drug and arms smuggling and vehicle theft. Lesotho Defence Force and SANDF have also entered into training agreement between the two forces. South Africa and Lesotho are due to sign an agreement on security cooperation. At the time of writing what is pending is for date of signing to be announced. The National Security Services of the two countries have been cooperating on a number of issues. It is the successes of these bilateral arrangements that demonstrate that cooperation in the region is possible even if critics would argue that disparity in the level of development would be an impediment.





The Lesotho Defence Force act safeguards the values of Lesotho's constitution, which substantially redefines the principles of defence and civil-military relations. The values and principles require the reformation of military doctrine, norms, conduct, professionalism and training. The formation and consolidation of democracy is scarcely possible if the military does not understand its role relationship to the civilian authority. Over the last year the Lesotho Defence Force in conducting its obligations observed that military activities and National Security be sufficiently transparent to enable meaningful parliamentary and public security.

During the past 12 months a number of activities took place. Given the broad scope of military field, I will not enumerate them here. Some were as a result of factors beyond our control. 1 wish to put on record my sincere appreciation for the valuable contribution our defence made in promoting democratic principles. The road ahead is not an easy one but 1 strongly believe that with determination and strong conviction in upholding the law, one shall succeed.


The LDF acknowledges and guarantees its contribution to the maintenance of the constitution and territorial integrity of the state. It is committed to contributing to the stability, security, peace and progress of the country and all its people. It shall always aim to enjoy the full support of the population and international respect as a result of its professionalism and high standards.

It also aims to be effective and affordable with appropriate equipment and is representative of the whole population and consists of all full time force under one central command and organised as a conventional force. It stands above party politics and operates in a fair, resourceful and determined manner within military acknowledged principles.

It maintains military ethics, personal integrity and, compassionate handling of the individual is of prime concern and is highly valued in the LDF. All members are actively encouraged and supported to realise their full potential.

It aims to, and shall, always be characterised by professionalism, integrity, loyalty and transparency. It strives for an integrated and decentralised management approach which provides for the management of change and promotion of morale.

Over and above all, it shall strive to be the protector of human dignity - from Miles Bellicosus to Miles Protector.


In recent times there has emerged conflicting views regarding the need of nation states to maintain defence forces.

A panel of experts assisting in the implementation of recommendations made by the commission of enquiry into the 1994 disturbances within the LDF in principle agree that Lesotho does require a modern, credible and affordable force. They went on to conclude that the absence of an immediate threat does not essentially guarantee peace. This assertion is quantified more by the fact that international relations are often characterised by unpredictability.

The role of the military is to support national policy. Recent sociopolitical trends that have emerged within the Southern African Region require that the military as a disciplined force play a supportive role in the strengthening of democracy.

Secondly, it is imperative that defence resources be utilised and managed in order to support national economic growth and development. In order to enhance conflict prevention and resolution, mechanisms ought to be put in place with a view to promoting military competence. This can be achieved through the continuation of military education both tactical and technical. Whilst it has already been asserted that the role of the LDF is to support national policies there exist other equally important roles as indicated in the statement of defence policy that can be in relative terms summed up as thus:


Lesotho's geopolitical situation diminishes the likelihood of any threat by external military forces. However, there remains a need for the protection of its inhabitants against armed attacks. There also exists a need to prevent illegal cross border movement of people, vehicles, drugs, contraband, etcetera.


The LDF should where and whenever the need arises, become involved in operations to support organisations similar in activities to the Disaster Management Authority (DMA). A case in mind in this regard would be the delivery of aid to remote areas during the 1996 snow disaster by LDF personnel.


In times of national crises, ranging from the delivery of water to drought stricken areas to the provision of medical, telephone and other services, the LDF would play a major role in alleviating some of the problems.


The LDF can be mandated to provide assistance to the police when it is considered that the latter lacks the capacity to resolve the situation themselves. This can happen for example during crowd disturbances such as rioting and looting.


These roles are more or less similar to the above-mentioned ones; a slight difference being that in this instance the LDF can only avail its personnel at the request of government ministry, and usually as a last resort.


Closer sociopolitical and economic co-operation that has emerged internationally has necessitated closer co-operation by the armed forces. Much as Lesotho is a member of various international organisations, in particular United Nations (UN), Organisation of African Unity (OAU) and Southern African Development Community (SADC) the LDF is bound to observe and abide by obligations associated with these international organisations. It has already been involved in a joint SADC peace keeping exercise in Zimbabwe and is on the threshold of undertaking a similar exercise in the Republic of South Africa.

This is not the end, but the beginning of the journey that LDF is facing for it to be the protector of human dignity and this in essence will enhance regional efforts to promote stability and sustainable development.


At the time of writing, the LDF is in the process of implementing a new structure which will reflect the organisation as a modern army as shown at Figure 1. Concerns have been raised about the inadequacies of the present structure hence efforts have been made to structure LDF according to international standards. Positive steps that have been taken to structure LDF according to the required international standards have been the new appointment of Brigade Commander, who is responsible for day to day operational command of the LDF and the appointment of Senior Staff Officer 1 (finance).

Chief of staff                                       Brigade Commander
Brigadier General E. L. Mating        A. R. Thibeli

At present the LDF is structured along the following areas of responsibilities headed by the Senior Staff officers (SS0s)


This section is headed by the Senior Staff Officers (SSO) responsible for matters pertaining to individual members, military and civilians subordinate to the commander of the LDF.

The personnel is the Senior Staff Officer (SSO) responsible for matters pertaining to individual members, military and civilians subordinate to the commander of the LDF. Some of the areas that (SSO) Personnel is responsible for include

During 1997 the size of the LDF has been attempted to be brought to the required standard. The figure has been increased to 2485. It has to be noted that this figure includes highly disabled personnel.

The present structural break-down of the LDF is as follows:-

Major Generals - 1
Brigadier Generals - 2
Colonels - 7
Lieutenant-Colonels - 10
Majors - 17
Captains - 25
Lieutenants - 37
2nd Lieutenants - 46
Warrant Officers Class 1 - 18
Warrant Officers Class II - 54
Staff-Sergeants - 22
Sergeants - 203
Corporals - 161
Lance-corporals - 132
Privates - 1750
TOTAL - 2485



During 1997 the under-mentioned members of LDF retired from the force

Colonels - 1
Lieutenant-colonels - 2
Majors - 2
Captains - 5
Second-Lieutenants - 2
Warrant Officers - 2
Staff-Sergeants - 1
Senior Technical Officer - 1


Sergeants - 1
Privates - 4


Lance-corporals - 1
Privates - 2


Privates - 1


During 1997 the LDF lost 29 personnel through deaths as a result of various tragic incidents and natural deaths, and a breakdown of those who passed away is as follows:

Colonels 1
Lieutenant-Colonels 1
Majors 2
Warrant Officers 1
Sergeants 3
Lance - Corporals 2
Privates 12
Civilian Staff 1

Of these figures fourteen members died as a result of natural deaths, eight from car accidents, two died of head injuries, two died of stab wounds, one died of gun shot wounds, one died of food poisoning and lastly one civilian died as a result of natural death.


During 1997 promotions at the LDF were as follows:-

1 Colonel was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General.
3 Lieutenant Colonels were promoted to the rank of Colonel.
9 Majors were promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel.
12 Captains were promoted to the rank of Major.
17 Lieutenants were promoted to the rank of Captain.
23 Second Lieutenants were promoted to the rank of Lieutenant.
23 Warrant Officers were promoted to the rank of Second-Lieutenant.
21 Warrant Officers Class II were promoted to the rank of Warrant-Officer Class I.
27 Sergeants were promoted to the rank of Warrant Officer Class Il.
19 Sergeants were promoted to the rank of Staff-Sergeant.
28 Corporals, 5 lance corporals and 2 privates were promoted to the rank of Sergeant.
23 Lance-corporals and 19 privates were promoted to the rank of corporal.


Education and training within the LDF are essential means of building and maintaining a high level of professionalism. Training should prepare members of LDF to be competent with their primary roles and other international obligations and is in fulfilment of Government of Lesotho's policy of professionalising the Army. The Training Wing is given the responsibility of providing basic military training to the LDF. However it suffers from lack of training facilities, offices for instructors and accommodation for students. This is being addressed by the Ministry of Defence.


80 members of LDF attended security and essential services course ran by Training Wing with effect from 12.05.97 to 23.05.97. The purpose was to equip members of LDF who are seconded to Central Bank of Lesotho with security awareness.

The LDF recognises a need for maintenance of technical, managerial and organizational skills and resources which enable members of LDF to perform their primary and secondary functions efficiently and effectively. To this end, members of LDF have been encouraged to equip themselves with technical and managerial skills. At present members of the LDF are pursuing their studies in various institutions both locally and internationally.


Two officers from the LDF attended staff courses in Nigeria and Kenya. Another member of LDF is still attending staff course in Nigeria.


2 officers from LDF attended platoon commanders course held in Zimbabwe with effect from 16/06/97 to 20/08/97.


3 members of LDF attended Defence Management Programme held at the University of Witwatersrand from 02.04.97 to 02.05.97.


2 members of LDF are attending cadet officers' course in Botswana.


1 member of LDF attended the above-mentioned course held in the United States of America.


10 members of LDF attended Military Police Course held in Botswana by the Botswana Defence Force with effect from 02.06.97 to 11.07.97.


5 members of LDF attended the above-mentioned course held in Botswana with effect from 8.10.97 to 12.12.97.


1 member of LDF attended the above-mentioned course held in the United States of America.


5 members of LDF attended Medics Course held in Namibia with effect from 21/07/97 to 2/08/97.


2 members of LDF attended General Store Management Course held in Swaziland with effect from 02.06.97 to 27.08.97.

At present some members of LDF are pursuing their studies at the following institutions:


9 members of the LDF are attending part-time studies at the IEMS.


1 member of the LDF is pursuing his studies at the NTTC.


1 member of the LDF is pursuing his studies at Agric college.


1 member of the LDF is pursuing his studies at the St. Augustine Seminary.


5 members are pursuing their bachelor degree in Public Administration.

1 - B. Comm.
1 - Sociology.
1 - B. Sc. (maths and physics)
1 - BA Law.
1 - BA Education.


1 - Baccalaureus Procutions Degree.


1 - Masters Degree in Public Administration.
1 - Diploma in Public Administration.


Members of the LDF are pursuing their studies in the following fields in Germany.

Computer Science.
Civil Engineering.
Mechanical Engineering.


This area is headed by a Senior Staff Officer who is a Colonel. This is the largest area of the LDF in terms of personnel, and the teeth of the entire Army found here. This is where the primary mission of the LDF viz "The Defence of Lesotho" is executed. And it is therefore an extremely important area, for without it the whole question of military capability and responsiveness may be at stake. It is responsible for planning, training, organising and executing in the operational area. This work needs the highest degree of sensitivity and needs to be handled carefully since the lives of the citizens may at times be affected if not properly handled. It makes recommendations on the priorities for allocating critical operational resources, and assignments of mission tasks are also done here. It is sub-divided into three sections, that is the operational section, personal security unit and a section that is employed in civil works.

As a result of a restructuring process the new post of the Brigade Commander was established and steps were taken to fully implement the battalion system.

Road march is one of the Activities that keep the soldiers at the highest level of fitness.
LDF is no exception in this regard.

At the moment LDF seeks to establish a one light infantry brigade with three battalions.

The operational bases have not changed, but additional posts were created in the Southern Region due to escalating rate of illegal border crossing that results in stock theft, drug trafficking and arms smuggling. It was decided that the Mount Moorosi Base should be closed, but due to logistical problems the decision has not been implemented.

It has been decided that security at Lesotho Highlands Water Project and other strategic areas be increased and this will result in the deployment of troops in these areas. It has become common to occupy every base with a platoon, though at other times the number goes beyond the size of a platoon.

Besides the traditional operations of the military mentioned above, viz; border patrols, the operations unit assists the civil authorities under sections 7 and 190 of the Lesotho Defence Force Act of 1996. To mention but a few, this unit assisted during the police crisis. It provides as escort to the Honourable The Prime Minister and Minister of Defence, other Cabinet Ministers and Judges of the High Court. Their duties range from escorting to driving. This part of the operation is headed by a Major who is deputised by a Lieutenant. Most of the personnel in it are assigned for at least twelve months. Operations also support a number of community related projects which include soil conservation projects at various places including Leribe and Mafeteng, which is operating under the Ministry of Agriculture's Soil Conservation section.

The Chief of Defence Force is being briefed by the operational commander
Colonel Lebelo during the combined arms tactical exercise at Setibing training base

Within the reporting period this unit embarked upon various exercises both locally and internationally. Locally, the operations embarked upon a combined arms tactical exercise with all the companies before the battalion system was implemented. It took about two months to complete.

Internationally, it participated in a joint exercise-"Exercise Blue Hungwe" held in Zimbabwe as part of the Peace Keeping Exercise by the SADC States. Problems encountered by Lesotho Defence Force members in these exercises were numerous and varying. They include lack of equipment such as tents with mosquito nets and stretchers. Sometimes in 1998 LDF, through this unit, is due to participate in a similar exercise: "Exercise Blue Crane", to be held in the Republic of South Africa. All these international exercises were embarked upon under the auspices of Inter-State Defence and Security Committee (ISDSC) with a view to take part in peace keeping exercises in other parts of the world. It is envisaged that a company will take part in Exercise Blue Crane.


This is the second largest department within the LDF. It comprises the following sections:

Its responsibility is to support the Army by determining supply requirements, maintenance of accountability, security of stores and supplies, requisition, storage and distribution of supplies and keeping of material records. It is headed by a Senior Staff Officer Logistics who is a Colonel. Each of the above sections is headed by sectional head. These sections will now be considered seriatim.


This section is responsible for catering of the LDF personnel throughout the country. It is headed by a Lieutenant. Due to lack of qualified staff and shortage of mess facilities at the outside bases the twenty (20) chefs who are qualified either from the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) or Maseru Sun Cabanas operate only in Maseru where reasonable mess facilities are available.

The personnel has been increased from forty six (46) to eighty six (86) and this has resulted in improved standard of food which is commanded by many. Ambassador of the United States to Lesotho, members of the OLC meeting between LDF and SANDF and students of the Zimbabwe Staff College are a few who can be mentioned.

The mess section encounters a variety of problems which inevitably hampers the smooth running of this important section. Due to long processes involved in paying the suppliers of raw materials by the Government, the former sometimes become very reluctant to supply the LDF and where it happens it results in estranged relationship between the two contracting parties. It is also common for suppliers to run out of agricultural produce before the expiry of the contract. It then becomes difficult for the other party to find an alternative supplier who is relatively cheaper.

Except for bases in Mokhotlong and Qacha's Nek, all others lack mess facilities including the one in Maseru at Makoanyane Barracks Infantry Training School. Lack of technicians is yet another problem associated with mess. It takes a long time for an item to be repaired in times of breakdown.


This is the section that supports the LDF with road transport. It has a total fleet of 216 vehicles and 37 motorbikes including the unserviceable. Only 93 vehicles and 32 motor bikes are serviceable. The motorbikes are used mainly for escorting the VIP'S, Military convoys and on ceremonial duties. It is headed by a Major who is normally referred to as a Motor Transport Officer (MTO). This section has a sub-branch - a military garage. This is charged with servicing, repairing, panel beating and spray painting of LDF vehicles. Some of the staff members are civilians and recently two members of this section participated in the Roof of Africa Rally, an internationally acclaimed rally held annually in Lesotho every Spring.

Staff members in the Transport section attended a variety of proficiency courses held by Plant and Vehicle Pool Service (PVPS) and Land Rover South Africa in Ladybrand.

The fleet has slightly increased, but because of the restructuring process the number still fall below the required minimum.

The garage is not in good condition whatsoever, and lacks capacity to order spare parts in its own right unless specially authorised to do so. It has been decided however, that structure be put in place to make it a fully fledged garage that may even have capacity to order spare parts without any authorisation by the Government Garage. Plans and quotations have been sought and the only issue left is funding for this project.

There were twenty nine accidents this year one had five fatalities, four of them were officers one a civilian.


This section responsible for storage, issuing, repairing and disposal of explosives, arms and ammunition. During the reporting period some structures were built to reduce lack of storage facilities. Personnel in this section needs to undergo training in storage and accounting. Only one course, (storage Management and Administration Course) was held. If this section could be computerised that would enhance efficiency of it.


This section's responsibility is to order in consultation with the procurement office at the Ministry of Defence and receive, store and issue all items falling beyond the scope of the TSD. These items include uniform and other inventory. It is also its duty to dispose of the worn and unserviceable material after the approval by the Ministry of Finance. The Ministry of Justice (prison dept) and Mohlomi Mental Hospital have benefited in the past.

This section is headed by a Major who is assisted by a Captain. It has a tailor and a cobbler sections. As the name implies the former deals in tailoring of uniform for the Army personnel, The latter has been specifically established to undertake all leather works within the Army. This has resulted in the decrease of a number of new boots issued in exchange of old ones by 15%. Old torn tents are also repaired by this section.

The total strength of the Quarter Master is 23 including the Major and seven civilians who are mainly in the tailor section.

Because of the nature of the job performed in stores, viz that of keeping of records, efforts have been made this year to send the staff to relevant courses like Computer Appreciation and Material Management Stage I held by Lesotho Institute for Public Administration and Management (LIPAM) and the Institute of Development Management (IDM) in Swaziland, General Stores Management as well as those held by British Army Logistics Short Term Training Team.

Efforts are being made to equip the cobbler and tailor Sections with new equipment in the coming financial year. The appointment of the Senior Store Keeper in the MOD is envisaged to strengthen this section.


The geographical position of Lesotho is such that three-quarters of the country is mountainous and only one quarter is lowlands. This means therefore that accessibility is not easy in terms of security, combatting crime, drug trafficking and arms smuggling and others in collaboration with the police. This dictates the necessity to have equine transport for that purpose.

At the moment LDF has 19 horses, most of which are emaciated and cannot be used in terrains such as this. Breeding of horses in the Lesotho Defence Force may be very expensive due to lack of grazing land. A farm has been purchased at Hobhouse Gelegenfontein in the district of Wepener, Republic of South Africa, the main purpose of which is to breed horses for the entire Army. This may be cheaper in the long term than breeding them at home since the farm has various facilities such as dams, boreholes and shelter facilities.


The mission of the Air Wing is to support the LDF personnel with air transport to its various duties and operations. But as a collateral service the Air Wing provides services to other Government Ministries, parastatals, private organisations and individuals on charter basis. Ministries such as Health and Water, Energy and Mining are a good example.

This is the LDF's third largest unit but most expensive to build 7-nd maintain. The reason is simply that this is the infancy stage of the Air Force which needs to be nourished for it is to grow. It is headed by a Senior Staff Officer who is a Lieutenant Colonel and a member of the technical staff. Other personnel include pilot officers, air traffic controllers and administrative staff. The personnel in this department has attended a variety of courses pertaining to their fields of operation, both locally and internationally. Four piloting students have just recently been sent to the Republic of South Africa for training. The other four are due to go to the United States air Force Academy, whilst the majority of the present personnel have undergone training in Italy and Japan.

It comprises two major sections, viz the Fixed Wing Squadron and the Rotary Wing Squadron. The former operates three fixed wing aircrafts:-

2 Casa 212
1 Cessna 182 Q

A CASA 212 which was inspected by members of the LDF under the auspices of Denel Aviation.

Two major inspections were carried out in respect of two Casa 212 under the auspices of a South African Company DENEL AVIATION, albeit the actual inspectors were the local military technical staff.

The Rotary Wing Squadron operates six helicopters:

3 Augusta Bell 412
2 BO 105
1 bell 47

Unlike last year with a total of over one thousand three hundred and fifty two (1352) hours flown, these two sections did not manage to increase the number of hours flown to exceed that figure, instead the hours fell below one thousand two hundred and two (1202). This could be attributable to low disaster relief in winter as the country experienced a relatively moderate season in terms of snow fall, and the completion of phase I A of the Lesotho Highlands Water project (LHWP)

One of the Rotary Wing helicopters A BO 105 being prepared to transport troops to the remote areas for patrol duties.

Like all others departments within the LDF, Air Wing has encountered a variety of problems which include delays in acquisition of spare parts, and it is the view of the technical staff that this can be alleviated by negotiating credit facilities with suppliers. It is also in dire need of renovation and improvement of all structures such as tarmacs, taxiways, hangars and many other related structures.

A closer relationship with Disaster Management Authority and the SANDF is still to be expected and liaison and communication have been set up, though the operational centre is still a problem due to lack of accommodation. Be that as it may, ties have been established which will produce fruitful results in the near future.


The major task placed upon the Military Intelligence has not changed this year. Due to the confidentiality nature of the work performed here, no attempt will be made to expatiate on it. However few things need to be noted. It is responsible for the production, analysis, dissemination and intelligence training to relevant authorities. It mainly advises the Commander, who in turn advises the Government on matters pertaining to security within the Army and more broadly within the country and providing -remedies in times of need.

Small as it is, the Military Intelligence has recently established a new office or branch known as Public Affairs office. Whilst the public needs to know how their taxes are being spent on defence, the interest of security sometimes dictates that the disclosure of information needs to be made to a reasonably limited extent. It is this office that strikes the balance between the need for the public to know and the need to maintain the security of the state, and advises accordingly so as to avoid putting the security of the state at stake.

Due to the nature of their operation great care has been taken to avoid conflict of interest with the National Security Service (NSS). A joint operations and intelligence committee whereby the Military Intelligence, National Security Service and the Criminal Investigation Division (CID) get together and exchange information on matters of common interest.

Though very small, the Military Intelligence performs other duties such as providing static security. A good example is during the Coronation of His Majesty the King Letsie Ill. It also provides photographic training and in some cases photographic coverage of national events such as that mentioned above and many others which are held annually, viz, His Majesty's Birthday.


The establishment of the office of the Military Police is provided for under section 16 of the Defence Act. Under this Act the head of the Military Police is referred to as the Provost Marshal. As the name implies this is the department that polices the Army. The Provost Marshal is charged inter alia, with the enforcement of the highest level of discipline within the Defence Force. The command structure of the Military Police comprises the following ranks: It is headed by a Lieutenant Colonel who is deputised by a Major. It also has one Captain, one Lieutenant and two Second lieutenants. The total strength including those in the command structure is 54. It has within itself three sections.

Members of the military Police in operation on the main North One road at Maqhaka.

The first and the largest section is the one that deals primarily with the enforcement of discipline. This applies to the two barracks in the capital of Maseru and in all bases throughout the country albeit in the latter it happens in the form of visits due to staffing problems. It does not manage to have permanent police in the bases. It is also the responsibility of this section to provide escort duties to Government officials in delivering pay and allowances to remote areas in the mountains, as well as providing security service to Lesotho Bank (LB) Lesotho Agricultural Development Bank (LADB). A number of joint operations have been undertaken with the Lesotho Mounted Police Service and Traffic Department to improve traffic control and to counter car theft.

Members of the LDF (Military Police) in operation with the Civil Police.

The second section is the Public Relations Office. This section deals with the relationship between the Army personnel and the public at large. It is in its infancy stage and therefore lacks qualified personnel. However, during the course of the year it has managed to resolve 13 cases successfully. it is the opinion of the command structure of the Defence Force to man it by qualified staff during the restructuring process, in particular during proper placement of personnel.

The third is the investigation section. At the time of writing, this section is based at the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) offices of the civil police as a matter of co-operation and a link between the Army and the Lesotho Mounted Police Service. This inevitably leads to skills being developed and therefore increases efficiency. It is at the moment manned with one warrant officer and two sergeants. The majority of the Military Police have undergone trainings in various countries.

A number of key issues are still to be addressed during the course of the year to improve the effectiveness of this department. They include shortage of staff and equipment.


Most of the armies in the world if not all, maintain an engineering unit as a support service for both operational duties of the army and in peace times. As a professional army LDF is also bound to maintain a highly qualified team of technicians and engineers which may help it fulfil its mandate successfully. And as in all armies they assist the operational units in times of war as well as performing civil works in peace times. The operational task of it involves assisting the operational units in their endeavour to defeat the enemy. This area is still in its infancy and its capacity needs to be strengthened. In peace times engineering embarks upon a number of projects from both within and beyond the defence organisation. This is the area where it is very effective.

During the period covered by this report it has embarked upon a project of building an ablution block at Ratjomose and of building an observation post at Makoanyane Barracks. A vast majority of offices and residential places are renovated by it in the LDF. Part of its personnel have been detailed to renovate the dilapidated Setibing Base.

United States Ambassador to Lesotho and the Minister of Health Officiated in a clinic
built by the members of the Lesotho Defence Force.

Beyond its primary jurisdiction, it has some excellent work in community related projects. It renovated the Morifi and Liphiring Health Centres in the Mohale's Hoek District. This included repainting, replacement of floor tiles, redoing of damaged ceiling and installation of solar system and many other works minute to mention though important of course.

It is headed by a Lieutenant Colonel who is deputised by a Major. Most of the personnel in it if not all, are technicians and engineers who have attended a number of courses in various countries such as USA, Germany and Republic of South Africa. It is very expensive to retain the personnel in this section for the Government is compelled to compete with the private sector as their field is highly marketable.

Notwithstanding its effectiveness in its operations, engineering suffers a majority of sophisticated equipment and other facilities. It does not have a store for its insufficient equipment. The Government through the Ministry of Defence has agreed in principle that some quality second hand equipment can be bought from other military sources.


Makoanyane Military Hospital (MMH) is the only hospital the Lesotho Defence Force has. It has a very minimal infrastructure within itself. It has one general ward for male and one for female with a capacity of ten in both cases. There is also a general children's ward with a capacity of fifteen. The maternity ward is capable of holding only four antenatal mothers. There is a small theatre which makes only one operation at a time,.

MMH is headed by a superintendent who is a soldier. it has two full time doctors including the superintendent. Like all other hospitals. MMH aims at preventing the diseases rather than curing them. But because of minimal staff and resources it is more curative than preventive. However, programmes have been drafted that will enhance that objective as soon as the issues of staff and resources have been addressed. Two doctors are on call 24 hours.

In 1997 two committees were established - A military Aids Committee and A Civil - Military Steering Committee with a view to initiate preventive strategies that may help to combat HIV/AIDS.

In march of the same year a home based care team was also formed and was aimed at helping the hospital's terminally ill patients at their home settings, as well as training their relatives on how best to care for them. This has proved to be more enterprising than keeping them in hospital. This exercise so far was extended on the families of the LDF personnel only.

In June 1997 a computer was purchased and is due to be connected to the Internet. This has enabled the doctors to be highly efficient in their work and has also improved the filing system.

In the same year an Emergency Rescue Team was established and was predominantly manned with Army paramedics. It normally focuses on road accidents, but hopes to cover other disasters such as droughts and snowfall as well. It is also hoped to be linked with Disaster Management Authority (DMA).

During the reporting period fifteen military personnel were attached to the MMH and some of them are due to go to Mapoteng and Roma Hospitals to further their studies.

In September, with the help of the LDF, MOD, WHO and NAPCP the hospital invited the Zambian Military Mobile Team to hold a workshop in Maseru "A Peer Educator Training of Trainers", some deliberations of which brought about a formation of Civil-Military Steering Committee against HIV/AIDS. This workshop did not only sensitise the top military officers to do something about HIV/AIDS infection, but also equipped most soldiers with peer education skills. It identified need for civil-military collaboration in tackling HIV/AIDS problem.

The MMH has a variety of constraints as well, of which the major ones will be analysed in this report.

It is the considered view that some of the problems in the hospital could be attributable to at least two factors: Lack of established Hospital administration policy has often resulted in the maladministration of the hospital as a whole. It is suggested that a study tour be made to any developing country's hospital so as to enable them adopt and adapt to what may be suitable to the hospital. Secondly, an overlap between the medical and the military professions sometimes hampers the smooth operation of the Hospital by relevant competent staff; more so because it sometimes becomes difficult to decide which one takes precedence and when.

The most serious constraint is seen in the budget of the hospital which has never been increased in proportion to the size of the service the hospital has to render. It would be recalled that the Army has just recruited approximately 460 recruits. The medical service extended to these new soldiers does not only end there, but extends also to their families and close relatives as well. This has a negative financial-impact on the hospital budget especially on drugs. This financial constraint filters down to other departments within the hospital.

The department of X-ray has only one machine which is most of the time out of order. The laboratory department makes only three tests out of many that are necessary. Servicing of hospital equipment, replacing of unserviceable equipment and minor works are other problems which actually emanate from the budgetary constraint.

Lastly, frequent transfers in the Officer Commanding (0. C.) Medical Directorate hampers the smooth running of the hospital, more so because this is a professional job. A minimum of two years has been suggested as the time upon which the Officer Commanding (0. C.) may be transferred to other departments.


The establishment of the Directorate of Legal Services is enshrined in the Lesotho Defence Force Act No 4 of 1996. Under this Act in particular section 17 the functions of DLS are to:

DLS comprises three sections within itself. The first section is the prosecution section (Criminal Section) which comprises four legally qualified prosecutors for the entire Army. The second section is manned by two law instructors and it is the training section for the whole Army including the newly enlisted personnel. At other times particularly during long training sessions this section co-opts persons from other sections within the DLS to assist it to ensure that the training becomes a success.

Lastly, the third section comprises one advocate and legal advisor who performs the duties ranging from tendering advice to the Commander of the Defence Force to defending civil cases in courts in collaboration with Law Office, Attorney General's Chambers as a legal representative of the Lesotho Government in all civil actions. It is this third section that also serves as the office of the Judge Advocate during sittings of Courts-Marshal, though at the moment there is no one holding the appropriate rank. It is hoped that during the personnel appreciation this issue will be addressed putting into consideration military experience.

The office of the Judge Advocate has not fully operated. Perhaps this could be attributed to the tradition of the Lesotho Defence Force over the past years where breaches of the law were dealt with by the civil courts. It is also hoped that during 1998, with the restructuring process, breaches of the law by the Army personnel will be dealt with by the Directorate of Legal Services through Courts-Marshal.

These three sections ensure that the Army personnel, both officers and other ranks adhere strictly to the law, as provided for under the Defence Act.

At the beginning of 1997 the DLS had 39 civil cases and numerous criminal cases awaiting due process in civil courts throughout the country. Out of that 23 were purely administrative in nature. They involved suspensions from duty which were indefinite, illegal dismissal and study leaves. This situation was rectified during the course of the year, when the suspension was cancelled and the personnel reinstated. The rest involved cases brought by the civil population for injuries inflicted by the members of the LDF in the execution of their duties. LDF is likely to pay a large amount as damages if it loses them or fails to decrease quanta. Only two cases have been heard in courts but were lost. It is this escalating rate of litigation by the civil population which prompted the DLS to establish that permanent training section to sensitise the LDF members and bring to their attention the need for strict compliance to the law. That in turn expanded the scope of training in legal matters. DLS is staffed with nine people including the secretary.

DLS has never been fully operational due to a number of factors, notably due to lack of books, writing and transport facilities. At the time of writing it did not even have a typewriter, chairs and tables for other members of the staff.


The role of the Lesotho Military Band is to support ceremonial functions to both the military and the Government. Members of public also have access to the military band for their private functions depending on the availability. Two of the LDF personnel invited the band to play at their weddings.

Unlike the previous year where the band was engaged in 45 activities, this year the military band has been involved in more than 50 activities. These included the funerals of the deceased officers.

On the officials side, the military band played at the presentation of credentials, international matches played locally, celebrated national holidays, graduation ceremonies at National University of Lesotho (NUL), National Teachers Training College (NTTC), National Health Training Centre (NHTC) and Lerotholi Technical Institute (LTI). During the reporting period Lesotho celebrated Kings Coronation in which the band was heavily involved.

His Majesty King Letsie III welcomes dignitaries at Moshoeshoe I International Airport during the King's coronation.

A section from the LDF military band attended a musical course held in Bloemfontein, in the Republic of South Africa (RSA) as part of improving their capabilities in music.

Although some of the band equipment was repaired and put to the required standard, it still suffers from lack of up to date equipment as old equipment needs repair more often, which is very expensive in the long run, especially when such equipment is used regularly.

The Military Band during the pass out parade of 463 recruits on the 1st of August 1997.

The little revenue generated by the band from its services still goes into Government coffers. However, negotiations are on the way to have that revenue channelled back into defence budget. The Ministry of Defence has not been able to secure good quality second hand equipment from other military force as yet.


Sport plays an important part in the life of a soldier and is a significant part in the development of team building, discipline and training in any professional army. LDF is no exception in promoting this activity as a professional Army too.

Lesotho Military Sports Association (LMSA) has been established specifically to deal with sports in all its faces. This is an administrative body that oversees that this activity becomes a success. Affiliated to this body are sub-groups which are charged with a specific field of sport.

Lesotho Defence Force clubs participated in various sporting activities with the civil population from both within and beyond the borders of Lesotho. If in the course of the report we highlight the contributions of some clubs it does not mean we fail to appreciate the contributions made by one or all of them.

Lesotho Defence Force Football club participated in the Premier League of the Lesotho Football Association (LEFA) where it vigorously denied all eleven teams all the trophies with no loss and only two draws with one team for the entire season. This is the first record ever in the history of football in Lesotho. This goes to show how powerful the team was for the year 1997. It has recently proven itself internationally by beating Mbabane Swallows of Swaziland by an aggregate of 6 goals to 1.

Other forms of sports within the Army include tennis, darts, athletics, netball, volleyball and taekwondo. The last three are also played even internationally in addition to football. In fact the taekwondo team went beyond the continent of Africa where it represented the Continent at CISM (ESALO) tournament held in Italy sometimes in 1997.

Many criticisms claim that it has evolved from "A force to reckon with" up to "A
formidable force to fear." LDF Taekwondo team on parade before the Commencement
of the training. Trainer: Mr Lee.

Taekwondo Team won four bronze medals in Spain. In the Republic of South Africa they managed to bring home one gold, three silver and one bronze medals. In a tournament held by Confederation of Southern African Taekwondo Association (COSATA) they managed to win five golds and lastly in a tournament held under the auspices of CISM in Italy, they represented the Continent and brought home one gold, two silvers and three bronzes.





The mission of the National Security Service is to assist in the promotion and maintenance of the highest standards of security and stability in the national interest. The National Security Service will strive to be an outstanding Intelligence Service, that upholds an apolitical approach in the way it operates and is affordable. The Service will strive to align itself with regional and international trends, whilst not sacrificing basic national interests.


Fully researched and assessed information;
Timely information;
Adequate information to assist Government decision and policy making;
Promotion and maintenance of national security;
An early warning system;


Supports the legitimately elected Government of the day;
Can provide an objective judgement of the situation;
Can analyse threats to the security of the state;
Are highly professional;


Provide value for money;
Be efficient in the use of resources;
Be effective in the use of resources;
Not be an unnecessary burden on the economy of country;


Protecting the Constitution of the country;
Addressing socioeconomic and sociopolitical issues in line with regional, international and national concerns;
Being accountable and transparent whilst adhering to the need to know principle; Operating within the parameters of the law;
Participating in regional and international alliances in support of national interests;


Since its formation the National Security Service has undergone many changes from the Police Special Branch until in 1992 when order No 25 of 1992 was passed giving the service full autonomy. According to the National Security Service Act, the primary objective of the service is to protect the state against threats of espionage, terrorism and/or sabotage which may infringe on National Security.

In order to achieve its mandate, it was found necessary to restructure the service to meet the demands of the changing world and of the new rnillenium. Threats facing the service have also changed. The new type of threats which have emerged are as follows:

Money - laundering
Drug - trafficking
Arms - smuggling


1997 has seen much activity within the service in accordance with the recommendations contained in the Faux Report. Most of the recommendations have been met. Preparations are underway to execute those that are still outstanding. With a move towards making a civilian service military ranks have been abolished and the present designations are as follows:

Director General
Deputy Director General
Deputy Director
Assistant Director
Principal Intelligence Officer
Senior Intelligence Officer
Higher Intelligence Officer
Intelligence Officer I
Intelligence Officer II
Intelligence Officer III
Intelligence Officer IV
Assistant Intelligence Officer



The Director General is the head of the service and in overall command. He reports directly to the Prime Minister on all matters relating to National Security. He is a member of the Protective Security Committee and the Central Intelligence Committee.


In the absence of the Director General he takes full control of the service. He deals with policy matters and general administration of the service and supervises intelligence production.


This section is responsible for intelligence collection and analysis. Regional intelligence officers report directly to this office. The section also deals with all foreign liaison matters and works closely with other intelligence services.


During the period under review radio communication was purchased for all districts. However in some outstations where there are no telephones we still rely on Lesotho Police Service for communication.


Due to lack of funds the service does not have sufficient vehicles to support operations in the field. Transport requirements have also increased due to the closure of some of the outstations. These places need to be covered and this will exacerbate future transport requirements in those areas.


The office is responsible for all matters relating to the administration of service members. This includes staff complement, promotions, welfare, transfers, retirements, personnel and training.


The Financial Controller is responsible for day to day management of the budget. This includes development of the budget estimate and provision of financial advice to the Director General.


During the period under review the training office conducted a training needs analysis survey which we believe will help in implementing the policies on career development, recruitment and training in early 1998. An opportunity was also provided for personnel to attend training courses at institutions home and abroad. In 1997 these have included.
General stores Management  Institution of Development

Management (IDM)

Public Administration and Public Relations Institute of Extra-Mural Studies (NUL) 22
Training course on Juvenile and Ad ministration of Justice Ministry of Justice 2
Communication Skills Institute of Extra-Mural Studies (NUL) 1
Computer Skills Computer Systems and Networks 8
Government Security officer's Training Course UNITED KINGDOM 2
Security Intelligence Officer Training Course UNITED KINGDOM 2
Senior Intelligence officers Training  UNITED KINGDOM 1
Strategic Planning and Management Republic of South Africa 8
Conference Management Lesotho Institute of Public Administration and Management 1


During 1997 the following changes occured in the Personnel Department:

Deaths 1
Retirements 1
Desertions 1
Promotions 17


Under the present organisation the service has offices in every district. Each district has its own outstations. The Districts are divided into three regions and their headquarters are as follows:

Leribe Northern Region
Maseru Central Region
Mohale's Hoek Southern Region


Tlokoeng Caledon's Poort Maputsoe Mapoteng
Sani-Top Monontša Peka
Qholaqhoe Lejone
Joel's Drift


Mabote Bokong
Roma Mashai



Matelile Makhaleng Tele Sekake
Van Rooyens'  Mpharane Mount Moorosi Qacha's Nek
Tša Kholo Border Gate



This report was produced by the following editorial team:


Ms Khabele M.
LtICol. Mareka T.


S/Lt. Sekhonyana N.
S/Lt. Tgephe M.


Mothabeng M.
Ramafikeng L.

7he editorial team wishes to thank all who assisted to produce and make this second report a success as well as their Senior Staff Officers for furnishing the editorial team with information relevant to their responsibilities.

We all thank you.